If the person you lie to checks your alibi, they may find out you lied. The survey showed that 93% of the middle-aged male graduates were married but only 65 percent of the women were. Huff apparently intended Lie with Statistics to be accessible to both young and old without any background in statistics. Watch yourself on video to decide if the lie sounded convincing. In one of her books she claimed that President Ronald Reagan, despite various scandals during 1987, only saw a five-point drop in his approval rating, from 80% to 75%.
This is because abnormally high or low numbers in the data set can significantly swing the average. This will result in you having to get your teeth drilled or pulled by the dentist. Three recounts could produce three different results. This means it is a range, though some either ignore this fact or try to use it to say something that isn't there. Huff uses the example of moneybags, one twice as tall as the other. Human has an instinct to lie. Ideally, a wealth of statistics would work like concrete, forming factual foundations undergirding solid theories and smart practices.
When parameters for the observed foam strike were fed to crater, it indicated that, while the damage would be significant, it was not a real hazard. The mean average might seem like the most foolproof of all the methods described above, but that actually isn't the case. You can still get it today! You can avoid lying under pressure by initiating the conversation about the subject you are lying about. Any good statistician knows that the only way to approach a useful average or spot a real trend is to gather data from as broad a set as possible. On the other side of that coin, let's say 10 companies are all found to use too much packaging material.
It is all in what you choose to include and how you choose to show it. Enter your email address during sign up. A chicken-egg quandary that allows you to dub one the cause, the other effect, as suits your purpose. It turns out that there is a tiny little cul-de-sac where 4 or 5 really highly paid executives live. Both men and women lie to protect themselves or others… 1057 Words 5 Pages The White Lie People are always talking about the white lie and how this kind of lying doesn't hurt other people. Readers aren't likely to see the problem unless they know some backstory. A list is presented in which all of them are shown to use what environmentalists consider to be too much.
Huff's book is more practical than theoretical. However, sometimes we change the range to better highlight the differences. Another subtle problem emerges in Huff's citations of Alfred Kinsey pgs. For example, if you survey 10,000 people, your results are likely to be accurate, but if you only survey 5 people, your results will likely be off. Sometimes you can disorient people and distract them by answering a question with another question. Foolishly they require no meeting of canines or photos.
Or, throw caution to the wind and change the proportions between the ordinate x and the abscissa y. Post Hoc Thinking Darrell Huff, in his neat little book, notes the results of a survey of Cornell graduates in the 1950's. The natural assumption is the arithmetic mean, which is the sum of the numbers divided by the count. At first glance, such information seems very detailed, but questions soon arise: how broad is the survey data? In different situations, lies are used in different ways. For example, when there is a zero at the bottom of a graph for comparison , and 10% looks like 10%, the trend up, down, flat is in proportion. There's even one example in the book that has no labeling on the Y axis at all! This books is all about a good cheat sheet to cheat with numbers.
Truncated Y-Axis One of the easiest ways to misrepresent your data is by messing with the y-axis of a bar graph, line graph, or scatter plot. In most cases, the y-axis ranges from 0 to a maximum value that encompasses the range of the data. Include something truthful in the lie. Lie voluntarily before you are asked anything. Together, they cited information from. In other words, if you have the numbers 3, 3, 5, 4, and 7, the mean average can be reached by adding them together to get 22 and then dividing the sum by 5 since there are 5 numbers in the set. An elaborate lie means more details that you have to keep track of and can often mean more explaining.
And that is the very definition of inadequate. Read the steps below to learn how to grasp tricky and misleading statistics and use that knowledge to your advantage. This article has also been viewed 20,110 times. Revenues have been declining for the past ten years! Will you get the mythical 50%? It's the kind of book that doesn't need a lot of outside instruction. Record a video of yourself lying. The Myth of the Metals, Socrates myth, in no way contradicts his definition of justice in The Republic.
Is mean, median, or mode average used? Huff approvingly cites the famous research of Alfred Kinsey. If you look only at Federal income taxes paid you get a very different result than if you consider the total tax burden of our income earners. And, yes, statistics can be used to manipulate, obfuscate, sensationalize, and confuse. This is because many research projects at the college level don't have the time or resources to use a broad, random sample of average citizens, and rely only on college students instead. The trick here is to use data that can't be fairly compared, and treat them as though they're on equal footing. Ask who is the purveyor, and what are his or her or its motives? Even a nonsensical statement such as this carries the air of authority until the meaning sinks in. Unfortunately, some sources today commit the same oversight, perhaps more concerned about Kinsey's influence than his accuracy.